Interactions & Reactions

"It is amazing to be able to directly visualize the cell in its natural media, without labeling and in 3D." Yasmine Abouleila and Ahmed Ali, RIKEN Research Institute


Dictyostelium discoideum phagocytizing E.coli



Monitor phagocytosis and related cellular processes, in real-time

The 3D Cell Explorer allows for non-invasive, high resolution & 3D imaging of internalization processes

  • Observe & localize the presence of bacteria in the digestive vacuoles inside the amoebae
  • Monitor the whole pathogen cycle inside the host cell 
  • High temporal time-lapse resolution (3D/1.7s) allows for obtaining complete bacteria internalization process time-lapse



Human blood smear infected with Plasmodium falciparum



Monitor intra-cellular parasitic infections instantly & stain-free

Analyze the whole parasites life-cycle inside cells

  • Recognize the different phases of malaria parasite reproductive cycle
  • Monitor the infection progression inside cells in real-time
  • Study the morphological modifications caused by the parasite
  • Diagnose the disease in one second



Mouse melanoma cancer cells incubated with Dictyostelium discoideum



Spy on how cells interact without getting noticed!

With the 3D Cell Explorer you can monitor cell-cell interactions in a totally stain-free fashion and in 3D

  • Identify different cell specimens based on their specific refractive index
  • Gather interaction information in 3D and 4D
  • Extract interactions kinetics & dynamics



HeLa cells infected with Chlamydia



Follow and study bacteria infections without stain!

With the 3D Cell Explorer you can monitor the whole life cycle of intra-cellular bacteria infection

  • Identify elementary bodies inside new infected cells
  • Follow the fusion of elementary bodies into inclusions and then into reticulate bodies until cell lysis
  • Measure size and volume of intra-cellular inclusions



Facile preparation of full-color emissive carbon dots and their applications in imaging of the adhesion of erythrocytes to endothelial cells

  • Characterize the adhesion of RBCs endothelial cells without the use of Fluorescence carbon dots